How to hold actors accountable? Accountability mechanisms Mapping accountability is useless if there are no consequences for failures to meet obligations. Consequences can be political, social, or even administrative. However, the notion of answerability also requires some mechanisms of legal enforceability. Mechanisms for legal accountability exist within both domestic and international schemes, including domestic courts as well as regional quasi-judicial bodies and international treaty-monitoring bodies authorized to monitor country situations and receive individual complaints.
The Inter-American System of Human Rights and the European System of Human Rights have been especially active in providing adjudications of rights relating to health, often through an expansive interpretation of the right to life and applications of the principle of non-discrimination. The long-awaited adoption of an Optional Protocol to the ICESCR — which, when it enters into force, will permit individual petitions — may significantly enhance the possibilities for holding States parties accountable for specific laws, policies, and practices relating to their obligations under that treaty, including their right-to-health obligations.
However, the realization of all rights, including the right to health, ultimately occurs at the national level and relies primarily upon domestic institutions. National Human Rights Institutions NHRIs can aid in fostering systemic accountability for the progress of health and development goals, as well as for violations of health-related rights. These are the exception, however. Of the approximately NHRIs in the world, only a small minority actively engage in ESC rights work, and fewer still in work relating to health rights.
Therefore, the impacts of policy recommendations as well as case adjudications can be haphazard and can depend upon the independence and political authority of the NHRI in question as well as on social mobilization. Judicial remedies: Courts, health rights, and social justice It is no coincidence that the three Critical Concepts articles in this issue focus on judicial action.
Beginning in the s with cases revolving around access to anti-retroviral medications — which were based on arguments relating to the right to life as well as health — courts throughout the world have increasingly enforced access to health goods and services. As Victor Abramovich and Laura Pautassi relate, Argentina, too, has experienced a wave of health rights litigation with significant implications for both policy-making and spending.
India and South Africa, as well as other common law jurisdictions where fewer holdings establish broad precedents, have also seen important cases relating to access to care as well as environmental health and the right to preconditions for health, such as food. If the question of whether courts can enforce health rights claims has been answered, many other questions remain. As Gloppen suggests, these include the advisability of judicial intervention in health policy, and whether such interventions distort priority-setting and displace democratic processes.
They also include questions for activists about when court-centric strategies co-opt energies better channeled into direct action. Assessing the role of courts, as well as when and how litigation can enhance the power of social mobilization, calls for contextualized, empirical investigation. For example, courts in Latin America have been most willing to issue judgments with substantial budgetary impacts. However, within South America, there are important distinctions in context and approach. Some countries — such as Peru and Bolivia — have not experienced heightened judicial intervention, despite important movements for health rights in those countries.
Among the countries where courts have been active, actors, processes, and impacts have varied greatly. Perhaps most interesting is evidence from trends in a number of countries that suggests that courts can propose structural remedies to health and social welfare policy, and that new understandings of litigation itself are emerging from current practices. Importantly, in these and other similar cases, redress is not confined to permutations of enforcing the status quo, such as compensation, restitution, or guarantees of non-repetition.
Rather, courts have been engaged in redefining social arrangements and entitlements. Moreover, in many cases the courts have not assumed that they know best how to reform systems or answer difficult policy questions involving considerable trade-offs. Instead, they have approached remedies in innovative ways, calling for broad stakeholder participation in public hearings and the setting of benchmarks for implementation. Yet, as Gloppen rightly notes, we must go beyond applauding innovative legal decisions to investigate what impacts these decisions have in practice.
The process of execution took approximately ten years — until all the administrative steps had been completed and the vaccination campaigns had begun. In assessing the role of courts — and the value of litigation in promoting health equity — the public health community might make a significant contribution by looking beyond narrow compliance questions to map the broader structural impacts. We do not have good data on the impact of emphasizing individualized access to treatment over public health preventive measures. Normative evaluations of the role of courts in promoting health equity and substantive democracy more broadly should be informed by sound public health evidence.
For activists, the decision to convert social demands into legal claims entails complex strategic calculations, as well as sometimes uneasy partnerships between social movements and NGOs. In all cases, any role for courts in promoting social transformation must be understood in the context of other forces in society, including grass-roots social movements and political actors. The fulfillment of the emancipation promises of many constitutions is too serious a matter to leave to constitutional justices. Promoting accountability with respect to laws, policies, and programs that bear on health-related rights requires a variety of strategies for monitoring progress and securing redress; it also requires clearly defining normative obligations.
Effectively addressing any health issue requires the protection of a wide array of both civil and political rights and ESC rights; one way to frame such obligations is to enumerate the rights entailed in resolving a given health issue. Each right, in turn, entails three dimensions of obligations: to respect, to protect, and to fulfill. Obligations of progressive realization are by far the least developed in human rights theory and practice.
However, it is establishing accountability for these that potentially offers the greatest added value to public health and development practice. Consonant with the Paris Principles on Aid Effectiveness and the more recent Accra Agenda for Action, efforts to hold donor governments accountable should also consider whether they focus on appropriate interventions, the effort they are making, and the process they use to achieve their goals.
Naming and shaming are critical; too often coercive measures that violate rights and dignity — from forced evictions to build dams to involuntary sterilizations to control population growth — have been justified in the name of economic development. Nevertheless, for human rights frameworks to contribute meaningfully to development and public health practice more generally, they must also add something to the much messier questions of priority-setting and resource allocations.
Otherwise, calls for rights-based approaches to health and development amount to little more than sloganeering. Accountability for taking appropriate steps and measures: Linking normative obligations to the best evidence from public health In practice, realizing civil and political rights requires both resources and progressive realization, and too often human rights practice has eschewed indicators and systems analyses that might permit a more accurate picture of whether a country is making progress.
Yet standard setting in ESC rights has been slowed by the need to look beyond the traditional, law-dominated domains of human rights advocacy to different disciplines and methodologies. This is particularly true in the realm of health. Although states are not expected to realize the right to health from one day to the next, they are not free to indefinitely defer taking steps toward the progressive realization of the right.
However, the appropriateness of services to address maternal mortality — or of measures to address any public health issue — does not spring automatically from transcendent principles of human rights law. Thus, what is normatively required must evolve with changing understandings of the epidemiology or pathology of a particular condition. For example, the advent of multidrug-resistant MDR tuberculosis challenges governmental responses to TB.
What was once appropriate in terms of health policy as well as normative obligations — introducing one new drug at a time — can no longer be considered so. Human rights can also inject concern for autonomy and dignity into health policy, such as in insistence on confidentiality, consent, and counseling in HIV testing. As Therese McGinn has pointed out:. For proven interventions, such as family planning and emergency obstetric care, it may be sufficient to measure utilization and rely on the evidence base for presumed long-term contribution i.
For unproven interventions, such as efforts to improve psychosocial health or minimize the effects of gender-based violence, measurement at [multiple] levels [is necessary]. Thus, it is public health and not an immutable principle of human rights which suggests under what circumstances a government should be held accountable for specific conducts that is, process indicators or results that is, outcome indicators relating to an aspect of health for both.
How can accountability for specific policies or programs be advanced in practice? Maternal mortality as an example After more than 20 years of frustratingly little progress on safe motherhood, Amnesty International, the Center for Reproductive Rights, and a number of other human rights NGOs, together with an International Initiative on Maternal Mortality and Human Rights, are framing maternal mortality explicitly as a human rights issue.
In terms of public health, it is clear what needs to be done. There is now a consensus in public health that the key interventions to reduce maternal mortality are skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care EmOC , and referral networks, together with family planning.
Moreover, the absence of political priority on making EmOC available, accessible, acceptable, and of adequate quality is directly related to the low social status of women in these societies. This may entail remedying discriminatory laws, policies, practices and gender inequalities that prevent women and adolescents from seeking good quality services. By showing how in a specific context a failure on the part of the government to ensure the AAAQ of EmOC leads to the three delays that cause women to die — it becomes apparent that these deaths are not random biological events, but the foreseeable result of systematic policy decisions on multiple levels.
When there is a lack of availability — that is, a dearth of health facilities themselves, or an absence of transportation, communications, or trained human resources and equipment — women and their families are understandably less apt to seek care. Similarly, physical as well as economic barriers to access, such as transport costs and user fees, also factor into decisions to seek care.
Perceived cultural insensitivity and lack of cultural acceptability, as well as poor quality of care at health facilities, can also lead to reluctance to seek care at a health facility. Once failures in AAAQ and the legal and policy framework underlying those failures are identified, governments can be held accountable for making the appropriate modifications, such as eliminating fees. Donor states, which directly and through multi-lateral banks underwrite health sector reform in much of the developing world as well as achievement of MDG 5 relating to reducing maternal mortality, can, likewise, be held accountable, ensuring that the interventions they fund promote and do not create barriers to the AAAQ of emergency obstetric care.
Maternal health is but one example among many. Likewise, every year billions of dollars in health aid are being poured into interventions that do not achieve much. These are not separate questions from human rights and dignity concerns; access to appropriate care, as well as to the preconditions of health lies at the center of the right to health.
The added value of rights lies precisely in converting what may be perceived as technical health policy questions into matters of political and legal entitlement. However, to move from rhetoric to application requires more than asserting that state failures are actionable claims. Implementation of international human rights norms relating to health at the national level must go beyond legislation, and beyond the traditional law-making and oversight bodies such as courts and NHRIs into the ministries including but not limited to health which are charged with designing social policy, and executing and monitoring programs that affect health.
Traditionally, economic policies have fallen outside of the purview of human rights advocacy. Although missing a robust evaluation of non-discrimination, these composite indexes allow for comparison of progress across countries of varying income levels as well as within one country over time, thereby highlighting states that are outliers or lagging in progressive realization.
Further, disaggregating the different indicators suggests that threshold GDP levels for achieving ESC rights vary considerably. That is, it may require substantially lower GDP levels to realize universal measles immunization or dramatic reductions in child mortality than to achieve universal primary education. Such information is clearly critical to human rights advocacy in making demands for immediate accountability versus progressive realization.
A tool such as the index can be coupled with deeper analysis into the reasons for underperformance in a certain area. Human rights principles that apply to those specific economic policies are then identified, and indicators of both conduct and result for example, expenditures and progress, respectively are selected to assess governmental compliance with principles. Through these audits, it is possible to discern how lack of adequate progress due to inadequate spending, including low health spending, can often be traced, at least in part, to insufficient tax revenues.
Moreover, fiscal policy affects compliance with both civil and political and ESC rights. For example, Guatemala — a country with notoriously bad fiscal policy — has health indicators that are among the worst in the region. If these audits allow us to discern how international instruments translate into policies, other innovative work is being done on how policies translate into budget commitments relating to obligations to fulfill specific aspects of the right to health. For example, a Mexican NGO, FUNDAR, issued a report in that exhaustively analyzed the connections between levels of maternal mortality throughout the country and the health budget.
At other times, however, retrogression can relate explicitly to financing and resources. The availability and use of resources is strongly influenced by the type of economic policies that States parties implement. Accountability for process, including equality and non-discrimination, meaningful participation, and a functioning health system A human rights approach to health and development policy judges the process through which health goals and outcomes are reached. A fundamental difference between rights-based approaches and most other approaches to development is their emphasis on changing relationships of power, rather than exclusively on boosting levels of material well-being.
Paul Hunt and Gunilla Backman devoted an entire article in the last issue of this journal to discussing the features of a health system based on recognition of the right to health, and space precludes addressing those features in depth here. Equal treatment is part of process as well as an end in itself. A future issue of this journal will be devoted to what the principles of non-discrimination and equality require in both theory and practice. It is worth noting here, however, that a human rights framework is concerned not just with instances of individual discrimination by providers who are acting as agents of the state.
As will be further examined in the next issue of this journal, participation is also key to the true realization of the health-related rights. Both states and other actors should be held accountable for ensuring that those affected have an adequate opportunity to participate in decision-making. Holding states and donors accountable for participation is tricky because participation is a notoriously elusive concept to measure and evaluate, as well as deeply contextual.
Meaningful participation in health is dramatically limited when rights to free expression, a free press, political participation, and access to information are not respected in law and practice. Donor states and international financial institutions, in conjunction with governments wary of popular involvement, may reduce participation in poverty reduction and development programs to tokenistic consultation with select members of civil society. In contrast, a rights-based approach calls for an authentic devolution of power within and beyond the health sector, with a transfer of planning and decision-making capacities to the individuals and communities served.
The subversive potential — and central value — of human rights lies in placing limits on both public lassitude and private greed through a framework and mechanisms for accountability. The accountability that human rights brings to bear converts passive recipients of health goods and services into active claims-holders, and challenges systems in which people are beholden to those wielding power over them with all too much discretion.
In the midst of a global economic crisis that will disproportionately affect the poor and sick — and which was precipitated by a lack of accountability — let us imagine a world, by contrast, where the rights to housing, food, and health are universally recognized and enforced. Such a world would not need to rely on the compassion of an individual sheriff who finds evictions distasteful. There would be no need to plead for something that is owed to all people as a matter of right. Yet establishing accountability requires moving from jeremiads to engagement with the concrete questions of how to enhance existing mechanisms — and create entirely new institutional architectures — that foster legal, political, and social accountability in the world that we live in right now.
Establishing accountability in our current reality requires going beyond exhortation, to signal to governments, donors, and other actors that human rights-based approaches to health and development practice can be radically pragmatic. Establishing accountability also requires fostering coalitions to mobilize consciousness and effective social action, in conjunction with or independent of legal strategies.
As Forman suggests in applying an analogy from the anti-slavery movement to the international movement for access to medicines, the compassion borne of solidarity — not charity — has long been a catalyst for the recognition of our shared humanity and, in turn, the flourishing of human rights. I am grateful to the Joseph H. I am also grateful to Adriana Benedict, my research assistant, for her invaluable assistance with the preparation of this article. See, for example, P. Alston and M. Gruskin, M. Grodin, G. Annas, and S. Yamin see note 1.
For a more general application of the need to compare performance of states across resource levels, see S. Fukuda-Parr, T. Lawson-Remer, and S. Three others relate to social determinants of health: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger ; provide universal primary education; and promote gender equality. Yet, despite efforts by the OHCHR and some other groups, human rights principles and concerns —including accountability — have been largely absent from not only the development, but also monitoring of progress with respect to the MDGs thus far.
However, in the case of MDG 5, there are a number of promising signs of change in that regard, including the launch of the IIMMHR and fieldwork by some of the largest human rights nongovernmental organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, on maternal health. This increases the challenges to complete and construct the invention for aviation.
Evaluate and choose faster than a human could to achieve good or adequate performance and in many cases affect more options down to the component level, which would be unobtainable by humans during flight. As unique as avionics is from other electronics and computer processing, the invention uses a PC architecture and application stack for the translation of messaging to interface flight systems and controls and protects this process in structures termed PFNs.
A matrix of secure, protected, redundant, automated controls and system management on the aircraft. Automated management for flight assist, robotics flight, and remote controlled flight. Data and commands are transmitted locally between the aircraft PFNs via dedicated short range communications to harmonize management of flight controls, and also transmitted to the earths surface by longer range wireless e.
RF interfaced in the PFNs. Local 1A aircraft PFNs are likewise hardwired and dispersed to any appropriate avionics bus for flight system activity control, redundancy and integrity checks. There are also separate applications specific to PFN combined actuators for hard to secure flight controls or for legacy aircraft or special applications. The initial goal after eliminating local control is to stabilize the plane's flight path. This second objective is accomplished via robotics chosen for better real-time responsiveness for long distance control scenarios to fly the plane to a Safe Base via special preprogrammed and isolated flight paths.
The removed and compressed atmosphere is canned. This un-recyclable air or waste air is then presented to a sensor array to detect biohazards and toxins. Informed decisions to determine whether to terminate a FACT flight, bag it, and sterilize it or how to unseal it on the ground are essential. Also, connected to the ventilation system the TRAC processor controls a valve with debilitating gas sleep gas or chloroform that can be activated from the ground or robotically. Optimally the aircraft will be assisted in a positive manner and landed safely with the passengers and crew spared any injury or some worse fate.
But this emergency scenario is inherently dangerous and this discussion is necessary. Ideally, the result will be an intelligent aircraft with an accountable autopilot and Remote Control RC pilot. Special training for RC pilots would have to be done of course. This is one immediate advantage for the nations security and the flying public. There is a standing executive order to the military to defend the nation's airspace against the hostile use of a commercial airliner. The invention provides some options to the shoot down scenario. This application is reliant on the former applications cited, and therefore focuses explicitly on the first generation products to meet immediate needs for the nation to have improved efficiency and security in the nations airports.
These vehicles and equipment are further interfaced with a larger machine messaging matrix via wireless and IP protocols to further coordinate movement assess and manage equipment and vehicles and their use and impact on the world resources, societies infrastructure and the environment.
It also teaches acceptable methods to remotely manage baggage handling and security equipment on the surface. The Carryon TRACker series is to be a reporter interface only system with isolated devices from actual flight control systems. TRACker is set up to support limited testing of new avionics technology in an Isolated format so that the proper analysis taking generally eight years can be systematically reduced with real flight testing with the units working separately, while a security link is maintained with Aeronautical Operations centers and used as a device for air marshals to keep TSA security on the surface informed on flight activities.
This connected communication matrix of computers and humans provides an enhanced Humanity Machine Interfacing HMI scenario both locally and systemically in real-time for improve equipment management and world stability.
This technology is well documented for it aggressive remote and automated response to the unlawful and unsafe use of vehicles and equipment. But it is important to remember that these security aspects are based first on a good operational management system and the invention is and always will be a management system first. The inventor feels strongly if the world populous can manage a life together n this hydrosphere sharing the resources they need in a satisfactory manner for all the security issue would be mute.
So good security must start with good management of resources, space and movement. This requires knowledge, a means to organize that knowledge, and a means to find agreement on the use of the knowledge organized and the means to affect that use. FACT security is only to be the enforcement arm of the people. To protect and serve the public will, it's safety and our national security. Not just individuals claiming to represent a mandate or to speak for the public or have the public voice. This invention provides the means to accountably poll the public on issues and should be used to give the populous more trust in their system of government and give their representatives their directives—that will be the real public voice.
The following excerpt stresses this point to keep a healthy social perspective. It is from the earlier related filing Ser.
The reader is encouraged to read the other filings to get an overview of how the technologies and innovations are integrated. Further descriptions of the related teachings are available and incorporated herein by reference. This is an interactive control center ideally secured and protected and connected with many peripheral devices and sensors interfaced and that can be remotely controlled and monitored via this PFN.
The invention uniquely provides the control device for society to fairly and accurately monitor and control the impact of equipment use on the world's environment and a nation's infrastructure. This is accomplished via hardware, hardware embedded software firmware , software programming, peripherals device and sensors on board, with wireless communication and locating devices. Which in turn connect with computer network systems to do monitoring and accounting and accountability business in a realistic and fair manner socially and economically, all aspect of a transaction are re-viewable.
The invention is a composite of a number unique interface innovations to include other commercial products to develop a complete accounting and management system for machines, vehicles and equipment use, some are described in this application and others are in related filings as other innovations. A great deal of explanation and specification is necessary to explain how the world's societies can utilize the total invention as a management tool with all the application specific innovations in an optimal manner.
This discussion has been based on humanities state of existence; technically, commercially and socially and how the invention can best be thought of as a complete management and economic tool for societies to fairly make and assess the crucial questions and make the correct decisions to enjoy a healthy existence together.
Especially, with a doubling world populous in the next forty years and no increase in space. It is important to keep in mind that this invention is a versatile, composite set of innovative interfaces for existing products, devices, and components to be net worked and span the globe. These unique embodiments of the invention satisfy the qualities to make it a timeless technology.
Societies will still develop their own specific ways to manage their lives but also be able to coordinate their choices with the rest of the world on environmental and economic issues via nation and industry specific technologies that would no longer be disparate. And in this process develop responsible management and security via accurate data and accountable remote control. From basic accountable machine messaging to full robotics and remote control, many unique interfaced innovative products have been created and developed and are also described and commercially detailed for development in this application and the other two filings The primary goal has been to provide innovative technical and commercial options for humanity to cost effectively govern its technologies through a responsible, accountable and informative management system, both the individual and the public.
Bearing theses responsibilities and respecting everyone's right to freedom, and the pursuit of happiness is basic to United States citizenry; and also the main purpose of the invention as well as the parameters of it's nature, and scope. This technology was invented to provide information and the means for humanity to make a healthy and happy life together not to rule over or govern another. The technology is an invention of management and security for societies to better operate and improve their quality of life on this planet.
As a management tool one function is to acquire meaningful data and deliver it to mass data handling and storage centers. For this reason it was envisioned and invented as an accountable technology and system so that all voices in society can find justice and good reason to make a peaceful, healthy and prosperous life together. In teaching this invention, the inventor has had a personal struggle with the intrusion of this technology and other IT technology into the personal rights of privacy. However, this right has always had a mathematical survival component for human life to sustain itself on earth.
Obvious e. Data will be essential to good management of resources and even for survival—our massing endangers activity planning and other individual freedoms. Sheer numbers of people and their activities in the same amount of place are going to raise the world's temperature and reduce our landmasses crowding the earth even more. The use of the dirty machinery and greenhouse gasses pale as the contributor to poor atmosphere, compared to the quantity of thermal heat from even the cleanest running future equipment and carbon dioxide our masses will generate.
Our personal biological data alone will become a barometer to humanity's quality of life. Personal biological data will become important data for all of humanity to know and plan from. Privacy will be difficult and via this invention replaced with amenity and individual respect via levels of secure accountable access to memory storage, with the strictest of professional procedures, protocols and penalties for any improprieties, so as the need arises to handle specific personal data in statistical applications the system will be trusted by and accountable to public.
Already to day after we really do not know how to move forward with seamless security for our nation and protect these rights in an acceptable manner.
The Power of Accountability: The Missing Link in Dynamic Defect Reduction
More important than any of the circuit design is that this technology be TRUSTED for the unique and different way it has been designed to preserve our free society and govern technology to respect that. This understanding is not just for the skilled in the arts, but also for all who know and use this invention or any portion of it. All must be consulted in the writing of standards, laws, rules regulations and code. Especially, programmers and code writers, they should know their constitution and law, as they are the last before installation and implementation of any running programs.
Obviously, programming will be changeable and the court system will be reviewing and doing that from time to time. But before implementation research and public deliberation to define procedures, protocols and programming should be in place. It is everybody's responsibility as citizens to review the use of the technology. The technology was designed to be an interactive gateway for the public voice to be heard so this technology stays current with the society it serves. The system is designed to enfranchise all and help, provision for all with fair and just management by all, while maintaining public safety for all.
No small task indeed, so it requires all of us. For those of us that fear the real dangers in robotics and machine intelligence, and for planners and programmers, I am listing a quote I used in my earlier writings to the DOT on collision avoidance systems and enhance Human Machine Interfacing HMI to manage driver distraction do to many carryon electronic devices e. This quote is taken from the Handbook of Robotics, 56 edition and should be integrated in any programming construct or an operating system when writing code for any mindful machinery in the future. Obviously a peacetime model, war, hostilities and homeland security will have programming applicable to that threat and those applications.
It represents the technology and the human activities necessary to effectively respond to in flight emergencies, including an airplane hi-jacking. To reach this goal pilot assist systems must advance in robotics and remote control to fly and land an aircraft without a skilled pilot on board. This application for invention provides a series progressions to accomplish this via proper testing, While, providing immediate management, safety and security enhancements to the air travel industry today. This application focuses on aviation transport and to meet the specific challenges to obtain this goal.
It is important to keep in mind that feasible modalities for final and specific designs to construct the remote control of the invention will vary with respect to the diverse aircraft that exist. All airframes and modalities discussed are generally used for examples. They are not meant to limit the nature and scope of the invention or the capability of any component engineer tasking to design and construct safe and functional avionics, aircraft parts and systems. It has become essential to national security to achieve real-time accountable flight control to restrict unauthorized use of an aircraft.
For this to happen, it has to be part of a seamless security system that is interfaced with ground security and part of a total air traffic management ATM system coordinated with the Transportation Security Agency TSA. The invention monitors and manages flow through the terminal and gate-to-gate in the skies. The Application specific circuit is further detailed in FIG.
Number is a land based remote control station. The PFNs are protected and seclude or camouflaged if need be as well as impregnable during flight. This structure will change per application meeting and becoming standard as part of the nature and scope of the invention. The lower half of the figure is the ground support network linked by wireless telephony, satellites, landlines and Internet protocols. Their responsibility is to scramble any pursuit or escort aircraft, and in the case of the invention any Remote Controller assist aircraft in the event that an aircraft has been hijacked and needs a pilot while still in flight.
There will be a means to incapacitate passengers and crew, there will be real-time audio and video to ground and escort assist aircraft with RC, there will be isolation capability for cabin air, there will be a capability to terminate the flight if the need arises. Air Force—Gihard. This air link is being quoted to show that the civil Aviation ATM GPS system can be used by aircraft to accurately dock their aircraft for refueling aloft. Of civilian avionics data links to support air operational command and control communications.
This would require that the military equip their aircraft with dual beyond-line-of-sight BLOS data links, and in the long term, line-of-site LOS data links. In times of crisis means that military aircraft must operate in aeronautical mobile satellite services AMSS. Denial of the best oceanic tracks, including optimal altitudes, and certain mission critical airspace may lead to serious degradation in DOD mission accomplishment.
In , the U. The military, along with several airlines, are encouraging this use of HFDL as a backup BLOS data link due to the large installation cost of the Inmarsat system and since many military aircraft are already equipped with HF radio systems for voice operation. Communications: Controller-Pilot Data Link Communication CPDLC —obviously there is much more to connecting two in fight aircraft for coordinated robotics flight and remote control but this coordinated use of commercial ATM systems is an ideal modality to interface the two.
There are a number of Federal, DOD, and USAF documents that require military aircraft to comply in peacetime with civil aviation requirements in civil-controlled airspace. Manufacturers are addressing the use of civil data link systems on military aircraft by developing solutions that port the civilian HFDL hardware and software onto circuit cards for installation into military HF radios.
Interfaces to a commercial off-the-shelf CMU are also being developed for military radios and for the military-specific flight management systems. Since an obvious necessity to coordinate air space activities between commercial air liners and military aircraft has now become a need to integrate flight controls for a number of good and sound reasons to include the capability to stop the unauthorized use of an aircraft.
Initially implementation would occur by first sharing this data link via the technologies carryon TRACker interface platform for air to air and air to ground security links in an isolated format and to develop further it's integration into commercial airframes avionics for automated flight functions like robust robotics flight and close in RC. Flight computers in some aircraft will hold the five flight plans that would first activate by a FACT event flag for compromised control of an aircraft and provide the best real time responsiveness with the flight controls, prior to escort RC assist aircraft's arrival.
FACT flight plan software would recognize course deviation and quarry the flight deck staff to authorize and confirm the needed alteration and new course. Flight contamination or illness might be another reason for robotics flight to remote control coordinated management from an escort assist aircraft. Procedures to become protocols for human response and software programming in the event that a commercial or private aircraft has been commandeered or deemed to be operating in an unauthorized manner. All the dispersed and disparate communications and mass data handling systems are coordinated to perform accountable real-time machine and equipment control.
Some are navigational hubs east of the Mississippi and some are in free flight areas west of the Mississippi where GPS allows straighter flight paths. The bottom mass data computer network in this drawing represents the TSA for Transportation security Agency's computer network. This will be further detailed throughout this application.
In FIG. Any changes to aircraft or flight systems requires a great deal of time in testing before it is allowed in regular flight scenarios. With this understanding the invention has been designed to accomplish robotics and remote control flying in a progressive manner and teaches a progression from commercial off the shelf or COTS products thru specific ASICs application specific integrated circuits to SOC technology with the necessary integration and consolidation of entire systems to chip technology through out this filing and the related applications.
For this reason it is important for the reader, examiner or reviewer to comprehend the use of existing technologies and parts and appreciate how they are innovatively interface and uniquely combined for functionality with present and legacy technologies to develop real product and test platforms for future consolidated versions with forward engineering for generations of enhanced protected and trusted PFNs to perform accountable machine control and secure communication routing for lifetimes.
However, as stated in figure one the time period for any such physical connections to avionics electrical buses normally take eight years. This application was first conceived for terrestrial PFN applications, specifically for light and heavy rail transport. One immediate benefit to this approach is that a real-time, real life test platform is created to evaluate prototype technologies in the field.
Plus testing can be an ongoing process, from beta testing to pre-production testing and through to include in service evaluation of components and system analysis. Progression is built by working examples. This carry on brief case unit routes all aviation communications and data through other acceptable wireless technologies to deliver operational and security data and video to the ground in real time to parallel to ATM air traffic management data provider to the Air Operations Center AOC.
It accomplishes this without being connected to the aircraft. The final circuit design and components are determined via these Brief case carry on TRACker unit evolutions which start by employing a Laptop in the processor to run the necessary programming to complete the interfacing.
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Ideally set up to handle windows programming which is acceptable to many of the COTS sensor arrays and transducer software. The 1a TRACker does not perform remote control via direct connection to the aircrafts avionics. This innovative prototype The 1a TRACker Brief case unit is further detailed in this specification for those skilled in the arts. Additionally, it is a wonderful example of the progressive aspect of this invention.
The circuit design is for complete robotics and remote control of an aircraft. The benefits of system redundancy will be incorporated for the safest of robotics and remote control flights. The essential flight systems will be interfaced via a higher-level interface program running in the 1A Aircraft PFNs. These multiple PFNs will be harmonized to insure un interrupted and coordinated control of the aircraft for those authorized to manage the flight aloft and on the surface. The architecture provides for translation programming between disparate communication protocols for universal emergency messaging.
Or, by direct connection with activity control components any appropriate flight control surface actuator via 1A PFN units or actuator specific stand alone PFNs. It will be a progressive one with initial interfacing of current COTS dispersed systems and components into a protected processor and protected actuator architecture. Future consolidation miniaturization and reduction in weight will be accomplished through Systems On a Chip or SOC technology. In concept this ASIC gives direction to those skilled in the arts to plan the various control scenarios involving hardware, software and firmware.
This figure lists the basics to construct the aircraft controls to fly five pre-programmed flights and Safe base landings. Enough to operate the aircraft with the necessary real-time flexibility to flight conditions available equipment, with no flight personnel and to land at one of five specified safe bases. Obviously, this scenario will not be absolutely safe but better than no pilot or the wrong one. Later; Flight and glide paths in programmed library data bases will exist for more airports, but FACT troubled flights will still land at special bases designed to protect the public and national security, and these scenarios will never be absolutely safe.
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The preprogrammed flight and landing programs can be stored on board or up loaded to an aircraft in need for automated assistance in returning to the surface. Possibly this could of aided an in experience pilot like JFK Jr. Or had he had the opportunity and ability to download these programs before lift off. This progressive unit will be able to control any essential peripherals during a failure event via local programming and robotics while it receives remote up loads from the surface in real-time.
The first PFN generation of aggressive robotics and remote control will be thoroughly tested to insure no false activation of the system and components. Then, it will be offered to the authorities and the public in general with the understanding; that it will not falsely activate. However, outcomes for authorized activations during hostile aircraft takeovers or to counter for local catastrophic flight control loss in real-time are at best just another option to a flight in trouble with no guarantees for a safe landing.
Basic for public understanding concerning all FACT activations:. When federal access and control of a piece of equipment occurs, that piece of equipment is being operated in an unauthorized or unsafe manner and any intervention is at best designed to limit the time any particular negative activity can transpire. Secondarily, exists the possibly to augment the outcome positively via genuine human effort and the proper technical options available. It is important to remember this is only a chance to improve the safety of a particular public at risk or the public in mass.
There are no sure safety measures for unexpected dangerous operation of equipment, especially if it is a result of intended misuse like a terrorist event. The terminology section helps organize the individual areas to progressively develop the technology via separate components and specific applications for the various aircraft. The accountable robotics and remote controls of the invention is the bases for the operating systems purpose, both in the FACT ground system and in 1A PFN aircraft avionics for flight management systems.
The various events that will fag a FACT activation are discussed with the response and activity controls as they apply to the named through out the application and in this section. This system works off of LEO satellites and does not interfere across the commercial surface cellular system of towers flooding ground telecommunication systems from a dispersed signal from above.
This chipset with appropriate protocols will be interfaced as a hybrid substrate as stated to the left of these basic communication inputs on the FIG. This configuration is displayed in other similar figures. All systems carrying voice transmissions analog or digital will have voice recognition software applied to transpose any verbal communication into digital format for transmission by other wireless protocols e.
These agencies will generally be located with the AOC. The air supply to the cockpit and passenger cabin is to be monitored for contaminants e. These individual devices are operated and processed by the proper divers and programs installed in the 1A PFN and translated by conversion interface algorithms to format the signal for transmission to the surface and TSA terminals via the appropriate onboard wireless. These security agencies are responsible for continual layers of automated and human data mining and analysis. These are existing technologies interfaced via the PFN platform in the ASIC and would have the appropriate hybrid chip sets interfacing these technologies to track, identify and sense materials, equipment and people approaching and entering the aircraft and the aircraft's cabin and compartments.
This connectivity via Blue tooth or Then the EZ pass tag could pass through the antenna array and be identified. Antenna hardware could be concealed in the air fame passageways and compartments. The gathered data would be passed on via PFN interfaced-long distance wireless technologies—either wireless telephony or other RF depending on the application.
Or to compared to any boarding list of known materials that was checked in and tagged with RFID technology for transported to a particular aircraft that matched a specific passenger' travel plans and movement for example. This technology can be used to identify and track mobile inventory for security and for commercial applications and billing applications, etc and communicated in real-time via the PFN machine-messaging network. These units and their ASICs are detailed in other drawings with the defining difference being they have limited in power and distance and ability to handle high current applications, otherwise they can give the same telemetry as the equipment PFNs and more telemetry than the RFID technology basically jus an ID tracking technology.
Scanning is another interfaced technology in all the PFNs. Through the airport and gate to gate through the skies. The troubled aircraft would provide a continual down load of identifiable data packets and information to surface receivers or satellite in route for further data resources in real-time to critical assist agencies and for later analysis. While the invention uses existing technologies and better coordinates their use in cross environmental applications it also manages the host equipment more efficiently by coordinating movement of vehicles on or near the earths surface with the data processed.
It is important for the reader or reviewer to keep in mind that the above wireless technologies are examples and this group of interfaces will change per aircraft and later in the terrestrial ASIC designs by application. The invention was not design to compete with existing technologies or infringe on prior art. It has always been conceived as an interface platform to coordinate these dispersed and disparate technologies and commercially work with these technologies to better manage equipment and route data for an improved the quality of life for humanity.
Exact flight path data will be gathered from onboard smart determination technologies and ground surveillance and communication systems and compared to preprogrammed flight plans. All in flight changes will be verified by surface and aircraft data telemetry and unauthorized flight will be FACT flagged and immediately result in a Safe Base flight plan via FACT event protocols. It is important to remember that the system under control has to translate avionics bus activity controls in digital format to the PFN operating program so along with all the hybrid chip sets there will be one to synthesize protocols like the maintenance interface does for to convert from the avionics digital signal messaging to a PC platform and windows applications for maintenance.
This is not specifically shown here in this ASIC because of the space in this figure. But this is the type of translation programming that will occur in the CPU with the codecs stored and conversion programming stored in memory.
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Other figures and the other related patent applications describe direct from the PFN separate actuators as well that are part of the technology's protected operations. The skilled in the art have to construct functionally appropriate designs to meet any code and specifications known in the industry for the specific airframes.
Actuator controls are covered in earlier related filings. Either wireless and encrypted or wired and with encrypted commands from protected PFN robotics or remote command. Clock distribution. Is coordinated in each PFN by LEO satellites or the GPS interfaced or other wireless communications with redundant systems and local clock updates to keep all moving and stationary objects placed in synchronized time and space for movement management on and near the earths surface.
This clocking will be the bases for programmers to write algorithms to account for signal trans mission times and conditions to obtain the optimum performance for near real-time control of any aircraft under remote control. It is to be system wide synchronized timing and is augmented by geographic position coordinates and updated by consistent redundant sources.
This process is part of the FACT construct program running in the 1A PFN to determine if a flight is positioned on time in the exact place and the correct altitude at a particular second in space and time.
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It is the electronic equipment placement police for an aircraft in the sky with a connected system partner on the ground all the way. The APC the auto Pilot computer is listed in this block for the initial 1A PFNs to incorporate as much as possible the auto flight systems with secured power supplies and increase their protection to make them impregnable. These emergency power sources are of the highest quality lithium batteries and are maintained at full power by the aircraft generators and the airframe's electrical bus.
The charging current is regulated and surge protected as well as one directional and can not be shorted externally to discharge or damage the emergency battery or negatively affect it's normal life detailed in related filings. All PFN units and flight critical components are self-powered in an emergency. All actuator PFN circuits, control circuits like the 1A PFN ASIC or trusted remote activity controller and any of the connectable are protected physically, and employ secured data links, wired and wireless with redundancy, and have individual service current available locally to complete their specific tasks form authorized signals.
Basically, the FACT registry tracks the use of electrically interfaced components and any equipment desired inventoried on the aircraft PFN file e. New item recognition is flagged data and routed to the specific center for analysis. Progressive use of existing components and technology are encouraged for rapid development of secured robotics and remote controlled flight, but it has to be securable and protect able to qualify or it must be SUC to 1A PFNs on board.
If employed the APC will be used to handle the 5 safe base fights initially and continually, but there will be self powered back up actuator controllers via dispersed PFNs operating in a harmonious matrix to provide ultimate control to the authorized authority, even if that authority is artificial intelligence AI on board robotics in a 1A PFN periodically. Regardless, of 1A PFN overrides, the autopilot must be impregnable to unauthorized personnel during flight standard to be determined and application specific. Personnel identification is accomplished via the communication systems and data transfer systems interfaced with the 1A PFN controller.
They would include smart card swipes, finger print and Iris scanning, voice recognition, thermal sensing, blood pressure readers and even EKGs via hand sensors and finger thaws on the yoke and instrument panel swipes as well as full biometrics transmitted via DSRC systems or 1P personal PFNS with body sensing harness belts, bracelets, watch type bands, or sensing clothing worn by the pilot and flight crew and interfaced.
This Robotics flight guardian program will maintain the approved flight plan via monitoring aircraft systems and progress with respect to authorized activity and conditions and continually check the pilots condition and flight crew if desired. This approval process can clear any legitimate pilot and provide proper access to the controls of the aircraft in emergencies by having all qualified personnel in the FACT registry. Local 1A PFNs will be updated with this list. Most other portions of this ASIC are self explanatory to those skilled in the art of avionics, electrical engineering and computer processing.
However, there will be sections in this specification and related filings that further define out functions performed by the specific components of this sample circuit. Obviously airframes, and terrestrial vehicles have different electronics and disparate properties that can hinder any effort to coordinate them. This creates a matrix of machine messaging and management that is coordinated and useable in real-time and can also be socially and commercially acceptable.
It is important to remember that the essential controls and communications will be determined by the security agencies, the FCC and FAA and industry standards efforts. The remote control communications will be ded or dedicated digital channels for individual activity controls for flight surfaces.
Probably on special military possibly DES communication channels that will be used form aircraft to aircraft and for close to SB landing applications. Safe bases SB. Otherwise robotics flight will be employed to maintain the highest level of real-time responsiveness for aircraft performance in relation to the real-time flying environment. To insure absolute maximum redundancy in communication from the plane to the surface, blue tooth, or wireless or any applicable DSRC interfaced will provide contact from any and all of their air travel carryon devices that interface with other long range communications so that any wireless device can be used by the 1A PFNTRAC processor s and the FACT system.
Herdon Va. Many automated controls auto pilots, flight computers flight and voice recorders sub system controllers exist in a distributed architecture in present and legacy aircraft. These systems are reliable trusted and well engineered and there is no real need to eliminate or replace them. This can be accomplished in a number of ways with all the various aircraft. Because realistically the invention's development and deployment will be varied and progressive earlier generations retrofits and legacy aircraft will not have all the functions desirable.
Those not obtainable through hardware and software integration and interfacing will be obtained through well-trained and security-cleared personnel until such systems are available or as standard operations for specific aircraft. For this reason FIG. There will be a capability to terminate the flight if the need arises. This technology is designed to be timeless, because it will evolve and become more consolidated integrated and protected. The ASIC translator and processor will be interfaced with IC hybrid substrate chipsets for the varied communication protocols.
The chosen systems as standards will inevitably be converted to system on a chip or SOC technology and housed in cans or specialized containments that have electronic security packaging and tamper detection. Additionally, their markets are expanded and their negative cross-environmental impact can be managed. Allowing them to freely produce their special products to an organized structure in place that is compatible to their industry, business, and government regulatory concerns, which will also improve public safety and national security. In all the patent applications the invention address the social and constitutional issues and impacts it will makes as an advanced Human Machine Interface Technology.
The following is a major issue for the People of United States to understand and accept as well as any peoples globally that will use the invention in the following manner. In a hostile take over of an aircraft a disabling aerosols could be released into the ventilation system of an aircraft if this is determined advantage.
The 1A PFN controller could be programmed to control a responsive solenoid valve wired or wireless on compressed gas containers and release this gas to sedate all occupants; if robotics flight and remote controlled landing proved the most ideal scenario for a portion or all of the public's safety. Personal 1P PFNs could monitor the known medically compromised passengers and regular crew for any near fatal results for this aggressive remote control action as well as, cabin and cockpit video systems Adjustments could be made robotically or remotely by medical staff in the TSA centers or on the surface.
As outlandish as it sounds even to this inventor these might be necessary options to insure the greater public safety and national security against terrorist events like the Sep. And, not just government agencies and the public and legislative branches of government, but all the public. Programming must reflect how a democratic society has decided to employ the invention for public good, safety and national security. The inventor suggests objective reviewers like the Kettering Institute and their National Issues forum and Civil Liberties to objectively frames the issues and quarry the public and report to the public wishes to government.
The hardest of issues might well be served with a public polling during stand elections. One that has the trust of the public and can serve as invented. This aggressive of a control system on board an aircraft has its proponent and opponents. But Boeing and others did not dismiss the possibility, nor the need for more technical options to poor human flight control when it is taking place. Most would rather stay focused on pilot assist systems for as long as this has the least reactionary approach. It begins by recording and reporting via an isolated wireless communication system.
The 1a carryon TRACker evolutions discussed later will be the first product to market. So in summary the invention in every aspect has industrial applicability. They also have strong interest and are willing to help develop the portable PFN tracking and telemetry network provided by the relay function of the PFN for short-range communications to longer-range communication links to maintain a mobile inventory for materials and baggage in transit.
Other applications will be discussed latter. This figure discusses some of the attributes and goals that will progressively be accomplished for all aircraft, however the time frames are flexible to say the least. The distinction between different 1A PFN units in the different airframes will be quite drastic, ultimately; the system will be miniaturized into protected SOC technology. Redundancy, trusted technology is another goal and these more perfect versions will be much cheaper as market volume increases and standards are defined and refined.
Mass acceptance will evolve a more universal technology for the management of shared controls with people and equipment. This will reduce cost for the technology by economy of scale. Making more sophisticated controls available for less sophisticated and light aircraft. Another planed development for the technology is to be forward and backward engineered. However, standards and component designs will always be determined by the experts, the skilled artisans, and engineers within industry and government. Specialists will be available to remotely control any incoming aircraft and handle any FACT flight emergency.
Second generation software flight and landing libraries will be developed for all commercial airports and more and more different types of aircraft to help skill deficient pilots at their controls fly safely and return to the surface in a safe and controlled manner. Additionally, the nation's private and general aviation airports will also have approach and landing programs developed as an ongoing process.
There will exist the capacity in this second generation to wirelessly upload to a 1A PFN flight controller in real time software flight programs. Where the pilots skills dose not match the flying challenge but the equipment exists on board to assist the pilot or do the job. First generation flight and landing at the 5 safe bases will employ COTS software for commercial or military airliners with their existing automated flight, glide path assist and advanced landing systems. Additionally these Safe Bases will be equipped with the latest systems like Denver's automated decent and landing systems.
Data links from these systems will be incorporated, along with existing automated flight simulator programming to mimic real-time flight conditions via conversion software algorithms that provide the RC pilot on the ground at the safe base realist simulation of the inbound FACT flight. Second generation may be completely automated with robotics and have the capability to land itself. The airborne RC pilot sits in a specially outfitted fighter for RC operations.
He is in direct contact with the troubled FACT flight that is responsive to his commands via the 1A PFN aircraft controller on board the troubled airliner. It is suggested that the airborne RC pilot be seated in the front seat Or have un impeded visibility with a high visibility TFT display below his wind screen sun shielded with all data from the FACT flight instrument panel displayed. Ideally a fly by wire system that can be switched from the FACT aircraft to the pursuit aircraft in an emergency. Both pilots have the means to terminate the flight and protocols for any such decision need to be determined and put into place.
The decision to hand off the controls to the land based RC pilot is one that will also have to be determined by testing and specific circumstance and then made into procedures and protocols, that are both reflexive and thoughtful where they should be. This branch of the nation's air defense will train for all sorts of aircraft and there will be special RC pilots that will be assigned to bases as squadrons. Some of which are RC air born pilots and others that are ground based RC pilots.
Skill is the determining factor and cross aircraft training is a necessity. With the same vigilance as NORAD staffed and defended the Due line during the cold war—so should it maintain available support aircraft flight staff and first responder specialist at these five safe bases and en route stations to handle any airborne emergency, aircraft and circumstance.
The Remote control Pilots and the 5 Safe Bases are part of this invention's proprietary FACT flight procedures to be made into national air defense policy and protocols. There will be more details as to the technical responses at the 5 safe bases in the figures to follow. They should be placed so no flight in process is no more than miles for a Safe Base landing or not more than an hour in the air after a FACT event has occurred on a flight-if possible.
Even though when a FACT event occurs the aircraft via 1A PFN robotics climes or descends to a special unoccupied altitude and airway on a special controlled flight path with no on board control a possible hour flight is still incredibly long. This figure shows such a C type troop carrier military aircraft. It has assist rockets for a quick air born assent.
Additionally all specialty gear would be stored on board the aircraft ready specifically for any number of responses and enough aircraft, personnel and equipment would be on stand by for immediate departure to meet any specific need. Possible the new osprey will have the bugs worked out of it and would provide the best service for these applications.
The objective of these assist services are to catch up with the airliner and follow the flight to the safe base and be ready to parachute from their troop carrying aircraft if the aircraft has an earlier termination before the safe base. Like in FIG. It is a protected interface node that cannot be compromised during flight and has the primary control over vital aircraft controls.
Any essential flight and landing component, programming and communications. This includes ultimate control over all voice systems. PFN units can and will be duplicated and placed wherever appropriate throughout the aircraft. They will be secluded as well as protected and interface as necessary with the aircraft's electrical bus in any fashion determined suitable to command, control all essential flight systems and security functions on board; and to back up any of those component or systems to meet standards or as determined appropriate by component and system engineers.
PFNs scan a necessary amount of system to receive and count frequencies to determine any and all transmission on board an aircraft. Additionally, they control all wireless communications to include hand held carryon devices such as cellular phones, personal navigational devices, other personal PFNs, mobile office units, personal computers, PDAs or palm pilots. The immediate purpose for this is to be able to terminate the use of these devices during critical flight operations at the will of authorized flight deck personnel via the PFNs, and especially, during a FACT event robotically.
Additionally, the authorized pilot and trained crewmembers to include sky marshals can utilize these systems as emergency wireless links to the surface during where they respond to wireless IP gateways and data storage receptacles in an emergency. With the detection of compromised flight controls a FACT event e.
At this point the pursuit and assist aircraft and personnel are scrambled and the appropriate level of Homeland security is increased to the appropriate level Color code and how it applies to everyone for this event to be determined. Specifically, not just to all safe bases but throughout the FACT connected system servicing all of the nations transportation means and their security agencies. Operational and specific information will be processed through the system to provide the most relevant data for particular an emergency and heightened security level.